Nasze życie we wsi Dusznica na pograniczu polsko-litewskim Our life in the village of Dusznica on the Polish-Lithuanian borderland
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piątek, 25 maja 2007
czwartek, 24 maja 2007
Z Wyłkowyszek do Sejn można dostać się dwiema drogami: przez Puńsk lub przez Łoździeje. Którędy podróżował Napoleon? Ważną wskazówkę daje nam tutaj ponownie nieoceniony Butkiewicz/There are two ways to get from Vilkaviskes to Sejny: through Puńsk or through Lazdijai. Which way did Napoleon go? The invaluable Butkiewicz provides us with an important hint here:



Translation:
A dozen days later it was becoming more and more clear that the army was fleeing from Russia. The 5th corps, composed chiefly of Polish troops, was passing through Sejny. When I learned that Prince Józef Poniatowski and General Dąbrowski were to spent the night in Wolmer's Hołny, seven versts from Sejny, I went there on foot with Wolmer's son, colonel of the National Guard, to take a look at the two famous men.


Jeżeli założymy, że dwaj znamienici mężowie również podróżowali z Wyłkowyszek, to oznacza, że korzystano z trasy przez Łoździeje. A teraz rzut oka na mapę (Mappa jeneralna województwa augustowskiego, Juliusz Colberg, 1826)/If we assume that the two eminent personages were also travelling from Vilkaviskes, this means that the route used was through Lazdijai. And now let's take a look at the map (General Map of the Augustów Palatinate, Juliusz Colberg, 1826):



Zdumiewające! Dzisiejsza główna droga - przez Ogrodniki - nie istnieje! Jedyna droga z Łoździej do Sejn prowadzi przez Dusznicę... (Czerwony punkt to Hołny Wolmera)/Amazing! Today's main road - through Ogrodniki - does not exist! The only road from Lazdijai to Sejny leads through Dusznica... (The red dot is Hołny Wolmera).



09:29, marslaur
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poniedziałek, 21 maja 2007
A skąd w ogóle Napoleon w Sejnach? To kolejna fascynująca historia/And how on earth did Napoleon find himself in Sejny in the first place? That is another fascinating story.

Opisuje ją Andrzej Matusiewicz w nr 25-26/2004 suwalskiego czasopisma Jaćwież/It was described by Andrzej Matusiewicz in the 25-26/2004 issue of the Suwałki-based periodical Jaćwież:



Allow me to translate some of the crucial paragraphs:

Accounts of Napoleon's return were left by [Armand Augustine Louis de] Caulaincourt in a chapter of his memoirs entitled In a Sled With Emperor Napoleon from Smorgonie to Warsaw, and by Stanisław Dunin-Wąsowicz, then lieutenant of the 3. squadron of the cavalrymen of the guard, a translator in Napoleon's personal staff.

The trip, 'memorable in world history', began in Smorgonie on December 5, 1812 at 8 p.m. In the morning on December 7, negotiating snowbanks, temperatures below minus 30 degrees Celsius and avoiding dangers, Napoleon and his entourage arrived in Kaunas. The original itinerary provided for a route through Konigsberg and Prussia. However, already between Vilnius and Kaunas, Napoleon started to have second thoughts. He was wary of travelling through Prussia, especially in a situation if he were to be recognised (he was travelling under Caulaincourt's name). The danger was also that, in Prussia, French army units and French commanders were confined to strongholds. There was no French military presence in the country. It was decided to go to Konigsberg, but through Mariampole. There the route could change if it turned out it was possible to go through the Duchy of Warsaw.

Having arrived in the evening in Mariampole, Caulaincourt was persuaded by a post stationmaster that the roads in the Duchy of Warsaw were in an acceptable condition and if he set off two hours earlier, the man would organise transport alongside the whole route to Warsaw through Augustów. That is exactly what happened. Napoleon set off an hour after the stationmaster and peasant horses waited for him at every stop. Because there was no time for changing the coach's wheels for sled runners, negotiating the snowbanks was not easy. It was also impossible to keep the traveler's genuine identity secret. Napoleon was recognised everywhere he stopped. (...) On December 8, 1812, before noon, Napoleon arrived for breakfast in Sejny.




Translation of some of the tastier fragments follows:

We all went to a house known as Cafe-hause, owned by Mr Miculewicz. Napoleon paced around the living room; time and again he approached the fireplace in which fire was burning. Miculewicz's wife kept pulling him away from the fireplace because she was preparing food in it for the guests. (...) At some point an officer of the guard, in full parade dress, of the Krasiński regiment, came into the room, the local commander, stopped in front of Napoleon, saluted him, and addressed him as 'sire'. 'Why do you know I am a sire?" Napoleon asked. Pointing at the Legion of Honour on his chest, the officer said he had the honour to receive it from the emperor under Wagram. Having expressed his satisfaction, Napoleon added, 'If so, it is no longer necessary to keep my name secret. Go fetch the sub-prefect (county leader), I have business with him". On his way out, the officer told those present to take off their caps because they were in the presence of an emperor. Everyone obeyed. Napoleon thanked them and asked them not to feel awkward, but everyone stood with their heads bare. The hostess stopped pulling Napoleon away from the fireplace. It became clear that the emperor was in a good mood. He talked to some of the women, especially Wiśniewska, the deputy magistrate's wife, who caught his attention with her young age and kindness. He praised her looks, patted on the shoulder, and, as was his habit, lightly touched her arm with his fingers or pinched her ear.

When the sub-prefect arrived, Napoleon went with him to the other room, where marshal Caulaincourt, generals Rapp and Sokolnicki, and Wąsowicz, colonel of the Krasiński Cavalry Regiment of the Guard, were present. Napoleon did not hide his anxiety at the prospect of traveling from Sejny to Augustów, because it meant riding fifty versts through the forest, in the night, and only forty versts from the Russian border where significant numbers of Cossacks had started showing up. A debate was held and it was decided the sub-prefect would escort him to Augustów.

Napoleon ate lunch with his entourage. He ate a lot, and was particularkly pleased with carrot with mutton cutlets. It was explained that Napoleon ate a warm meal for the first tgime since leaving Moscow, having confined himself to cold snacks until now.

After lunch Napoleon went out to the porch and cast a glance at Sejny's mass levy composed of the town dwellers, and the so called pikemen, peasant people. Looking at a sapper unit in white canvas aprons, tall sheepskin caps, and long artificial beards standing at the head of the national guard, he started to laugh. He started laughing even harder when he looked at the above-mentioned 'pikemen', and he said to general Rapp: 'C'est bien ridicule'. Indeed, their dress was funny. The jacket and the breeches were made of thick, coarse cloth. The cap, shaped like a tall yarmulke cap, was made of the same material. Still, Napoleon liked the energy and stamina of these men, their cheerful mood despite the air temperature being minus 20 degrees Celsius.

And when the guard, under the command of captain Żelna [?], an 80-year old veteran, Kościuszko's peer, presented arms, and pikemen raised their pikes and started shouting 'Long live the emperor", Napoleon was delighted. He expressed his satisfaction several times and thanked the men. He asked the sub-prefect about how many soldiers there were. When he found out the unit counted over 2,000 men, he said he thought the Sejny county was smaller than the other ones in the Duchy of Warsaw. If it could contribute 2,000 men, then the Duchy's 100 counties could put up an army of 200,000. 'Gentlemen,' Napoleon addressed those present, 'do not lose hope'.

(...)

In Głęboki Bród (the first post station), Napoleon asked Wąsowicz to check whether the locals had not seen any Cossacks in the area*. In Augustów, he thanked the sub-prefect for eacorting him safely, said he would never forget it and would make sure to reward him for his service. And indeed, he did, as we shall find out later.

(...)

Following his abdicatioon in 1814, Napoleon sent from the Elba by diplomatic post to the Sejny sub-prefect Ludwik Iwaszkiewicz, with a letter thanking him for his favour, a precious diamond ring. It was over an inch in diameter. On a beautiful amethyst stood the letter N, topped by the imperial crown, made with small diamonds of excellent quality. Besides that, there were over twenty quite large diamonds around. The jewelers in Warsaw priced the ring at over 10,000 zlotys (1,500 roubles in silver). In the end, Iwaszkiewicz, who was in a desperate position, had to sell the ring to a Jew for 400 thalers.

* The account featured in the Memorial Book of the Suwałki Gubernia for 1885 contains an additional fragment here: "Napoleon's worries were not ungrounded; three versts from the town, in the Old Orthodox village of Posejanka, a crowd gathered to capture Napoleon and give him away to the Russians. Having learned about it, the sub-prefect ordered the crowd to be pulled away, and, down an alternative gravel road, throough thick woods, safely escorted Napoleon to Augustów".


The above account, discovered by Andrzej Matusiewicz and translated from the Russian by Izabela Kruszko, was written by Father Bonawentura Butkiewicz and published in the Russkaya Starina periodical in 1875. The text featured in the Memorial Book of the Suwałki Gubernia 1885 was based on it.

Bonawentura Butkiewicz (born July 12, 1795 in Kretinga, died October 8, 1871 in Prenai) for four years attended a parish school in Kretinga. In 1811, he was sent to Rudamina, to his uncle Father Polikarp Augustyn Marciejewski, later a bishop, who ran the parish there. Marciejewski sent Butkiewicz to the Sejny high school, where he completed six grades in 1816 and returned to Rudamina. Ordained 1819, a a master's degree in theology 1821, a doctoral degree, 1844. 1822-1823 canon of the Sejny cathedral, 1851-1853 administrator of the Sejny diocese.

Polikarp Augustyn Marciejewski (1761-1827), born in Kretinga to Szymon and Julianna nee Titz. 1778 joined the Black Friars, ordained 1784. From 1801 parish priest in Rudamina, from 1809 administrator of the Sejny parish, from 1819 bishop suffragan of the Wigry diocese, from 1824 its administrator. Spoke German, French, and beautiful Latin. During his tenure in Rudamina became fluent in Lithuanian.


21:42, marslaur
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Kilka zdjęć z dzisiejszej wyprawy do Varviske (Warwiszek)/A couple of images from today's trip to Varviske. Trasa/The route: Lazdijai - Viejsejis - Kapciamestis - Varviske - Sventijanskas - Baltoji Ancia zapora/dam - Leipalingis - Viejsejis - Lazdijai.



Varviske leży u ujścia Czarnej Hańczy do Niemna. Kilkaset metrów wcześniej Czarną Hańczę zasila jeszcze graniczna rzeczka Igara (Ihorka)/Varviske lies at Czarna Hańcza's estuary into the Nemunas. Several hundred meters earlier, Czarna Hańcza is supplied by the border river Igara (Ihorka in Belarussian).







Ujście Igary (Ihorki)/The mouth of Igara (Ihorka):


Więcej zdjęć wkrótce, bo na razie przekroczyłem limit pojemności bloga.../More pictures on the way, for now I've exceeded the blog's data volume limit...
09:34, marslaur
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sobota, 19 maja 2007
Historia naszego poznawania historii majątku Dusznica zaczęła się od księgi hipotecznej dóbr znajdującej się w Archiwum Państwowym w Suwałkach/The history of our research of the history of the Dusznica estate began with the mortgage register, kept in the State Archive in Suwałki.








Dział pierwszy wymienia dobra Dusznica "część A" o powierzchni 155.6 hektara, czyli 278 mórg i 2 pręty/Section one states that the "part A" of the Dusznica estate counted 155.6 hectares.

Dział drugi wyjaśnia, że druga część majątku, o pow. 152.3 ha, to jest 282 morgi i 33 pręty, "położona jest teraz w Litwie". Cały majątek liczył zatem 308 hektarów, to jest 560 mórg, a w roku 1919 przedzieliła go granica polsko-litewska (nie uznana zresztą przez Litwę aż do roku 1938 i konsekwentnie nazywana przez rząd w Kownie "linią demarkacyjną")/Section two explains that the estate's second half, counting 152.3 hectares, 'is now located in Lithuania'. The whole estate, therefore, counted 308 hectares, and in 1919 it was divided by the Polish-Lithuanian border (which, incidentally, Lithuania did not accept until only 1938 and insisted on calling a 'demarcation line').




Dział drugi wymienia właścicieli: Abram Efron w 2/4 częściach, Leja z Finków Dusznicka w 1/4 części, Etta z Dusznickich Frydmanowa w 1/4 części. Nabyli oni całe dobra od Zofii Ejsmontówny w dniu 1 (14 starego kalendarza) sierpnia 1912 roku za sumę 36 000 rubli. Wartość majątku dział drugi szacuje (w roku 1930) na 117 251 złotych polskich/Section two lists the owners: Abram Efron in 2/4 parts, Leja Dusznicka nee Fink in 1/2 parts, and Etta Frydman nee Dusznicka in 1/2 parts. They bought the estate from Zofia Ejsmontówna on August 1 (14 in old calendar), 1912 for the price of 36,000 roubles. Section two estimates the estate's value (in 1930) at 117,251 Polish zlotys.


Następny był list, który dostałem od pani Bożeny Szroeder z Fundacji Pogranicze/Next came a letter a copy of which I received from Ms Bożena Szroeder at the Borderland Foundation in Sejny:













Let me translate some fragments for you:

My name is Sara Szner, born Sonia Dusznicka, born in Sejny in 1913. My father, Mojżesz Dusznicki was also born in Sejny, as was grandfather and the forefathers.

The house in which I was born was for decades called the "Napoleon's House" because the French emperor in 1812, when he started the war against Russia, slept in our house. In the backyard, a small windowless and doorless structure was erected with two large exits each side. I was told it was a stable for the emperor's horses and coach. The street was called Napoleońska Street until WWII, and after the war it housed a Polish orphanage..
(...)
My father completed his studies in the Warsaw Polytechnic, he was a land surveyor.

I spent my teenage years in the family estate in Dusznica, which was located on the demarcation line, the border with Lithuania. (The buildings in Poland, and much of the land on the Lithuanian side).

On the other side of Marycha, in a large garden, stood the house of my father's brother, lawyer Mordechaj Dusznicki.

In 1925 my family moved to Lithuania. We took up residence in the town of Lazdijai. There I studied and pased my maturity exams in the Lithuanian high school called Seinu Zibiurio Gimnazija, the headmaster was father Starkus. It was a coeducational school.

My father died in 1931. My mother in 1996. I survived Nazi prison and spent a year with the partisans.

Since 1948 I live in the Ghetto Fighters' Kibbutz and I work in the museum here. I write about the Holocaust, the genocide of my nation, and of the fight against the Nazis.
(...)

Do tego był jeszcze drugi list:















(...)
A lot of water has passed under the bridge over the river Marycha since my father harnessed a pair of horses to a coach and took us for shopping from Dusznica to town.
(...)
I still have the image of our estate in Dusznica embedded in my mind. Not even the house where we lived but the huge garden, or rather park, around the house.
I spent several very happy pre-school years there. I climbed the trees like a boy, picked dark-red cherries and yellow sweet cherries, picked bunches of aromatic lilac, which I always miss in Israel. We have trees and shrubs here from all over the world, but lilac is very rare because it needs snow.
(...)

TAJEMNICA DOMU NAPOLEONA

Dom wuja Mordechaja wciąż stoi/Uncle Mordechaj's house is still there:




Co ciekawe, w domu tym mieszkał później doktor Edward Rittler, twórca sejneńskiego szpitala i postać wielce dla miasta zasłużona. Rittler mieszkał w Sejnach latach 1947-1972/Interestingly, this would later become the dwelling place of doctor Edward Rittler, the initiator of the construction of the county hospital in Sejny and a personality who rendered great services to the town. Rittler lived in Sejny 1947-1972.




The house in which Napoleon stayed in 1812:

Wedle Pamiatnoj Kniżki Suwalskoj Gubierni na 1885 God, był to "niewielki drewniany dom z antresolą - była kawiarnia - przy głównej ulicy miasta w pobliżu kościoła katedralnego "/According to the Memorial Book of the Suwałki Gubernia for the Year 1885, it was a 'small wooden house with a mezzanine - a former cafe - on the town's main street, near the cathedral church'.

Problem w tym, że pani Sara, jak się później dowiem, nie rozpoznaje wcale domu na powyższym zdjęciu/The problem is that Ms Dusznicka, as I will later find out, does not recognise the house in the picture above.

Tak czy owak, budynek stojący naprzeciwko domu Mordechaja - czyli na rogu ulic Napoleońskiej i Łoździejskiej (dzisiejszego Pl. Św. Agaty i ul. 22 Lipca) - spłonął wiosną 1941 roku razem z sejneńskimi sukiennicami, kiedy Niemcy przed wyruszeniem na Rosję palili dokumenty w sąsiednim budynku sądu grodzkiego i zaprószyli ogień/In any case, the building opposite Mordechaj's house - that is, on the corner of Napoleońska St. and Łoździejska St. (today's Plac Św. Agaty and 22 Lipca St.) - burned down in spring 1941 when the Germans, before invading Russia, were burning documents in the yard of the adjacent municipal court building and started a fire, which also consumed the Sejny shopping arcade.

Czy to któryś z budynków poniżej był "domem Napoleona"? Was any of the buildings below the 'Napoleon House'?




Na pierwszym planie sukiennice, w głębi katedra/The shopping arcade in the foreground, the cathedral in the back.

Dzisiaj/Today:


Skrzyżowanie dawnych ulic Napoleońskiej i Łoździejskiej dzisiaj/The intersection of the former Napoleońska and Łoździejska streets today:





Rzeczka Marycha (Sejna) między dwoma interesującymi nas domami/The river Marycha (Sejna) between the two houses in question:





 

Podwórko, które zapewne było podwórkiem "domu Napoleona". Czy "garażyk" nie jest jakąś reminiscencją stajni zbudowanej dla koni cesarza?/A courtyard that was probably the courtyard of the 'Napoleon house'. Isn't the 'small garage' a reminiscence of the stable built for the emperor's horses?





Żeby jeszcze bardziej skomplikować historię, dodam, że jako dom, w którym zatrzymał się Napoleon, wskazuje się w Sejnach nie mniej niż trzy inne domy: Starą Pocztę (dzisiaj siedzibę Fundacji Pogranicze, wg I. Baturowej, Przewodnik turystyczny po ziemi sejneńskiej, s. 34, dawną karczmę na rogu Piłsudskiego i Marchlewskiego (dzisiaj stoi tutaj budynek Starostwa Powiatowego, źródło jak wyżej, s. 51) oraz dom na Szkolnej naprzeciwko sióstr (informacja od mieszkańca Sejn)/To complicate the matter even further, let me add that no less than three houses are indicated in Sejny as the house where Napoleon spent the night in 1812: the Old Post Office (today housing the Borderland Foundation, according to I. Baturowa, Przewodnik turystyczny po ziemi sejneńskiej, p. 34), a former inn on the corner of Piłsudskiego and Marchlewskiego (today the seat of the County Office, sources as above, p. 51), and a house on Szkolna St. opposite the nunnery (information from a Sejny local).

Stara Poczta/The Old Post Office:


A skąd w ogóle Napoleon w Sejnach? To kolejna fascynująca historia/And how on earth did Napoleon find himself in Sejny in the first place? That is another fascinating story.

Opisuje ją Andrzej Matusiewicz w nr 25-26/2004 suwalskiego czasopisma Jaćwież:



Allow me to translate some of the crucial paragraphs:

Accounts of Napoleon's return were left by [Armand Augustine Louis de] Caulaincourt in a chapter of his memoirs entitled In a Sled With Emperor Napoleon from Smorgonie to Warsaw, and by Stanisław Dunin-Wąsowicz, then lieutenant of the 3. squadron of the cavalrymen of the guard, a translator in Napoleon's personal staff.

The trip, 'memorable in world history', began in Smorgonie on December 5, 1812 at 8 p.m. In the morning on December 7, negotiating snowbanks, temperatures below minus 30 degrees Celsius and avoiding dangers, Napoleon and his entourage arrived in Kaunas. The original itinerary provided for a route through Konigsberg and Prussia. However, already between Vilnius and Kaunas, Napoleon began hesitating. He was wary of travelling through Prussia, especially in a situation if he were to be recognised (he was travelling under Caulaincourt's name). The danger was also that, in Prussia, French army units and French commanders were confined to strongholds. There was no French military presence in the country. It was decided to go to Konigsberg, but through Mariampole. There the route could change if it turned out it was possible to go through the Duchy of Warsaw.

Having arrived in the evening in Mariampole, Caulaincourt was persuaded by a post stationmaster that the roads in the Duchy of Warsaw were in an acceptable condition and if he set off two hours earlier, the man would organise transport alongside the whole route to Warsaw through Augustów. That is exactly what happened. Napoleon set off an hour after the stationmaster and peasant horses waited for him at every stop. Because there was no time for changing the coach's wheels for sled runners, negotiating the snowbanks was not easy. It was also impossible to keep the traveler's genuine identity secret. Napoleon was recognised everywhere he stopped. (...) On December 8, 1812, before noon, Napoleon arrived for breakfast in Sejny.





cdn./to be continued
23:13, marslaur
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... I na dodatek litewski ma cudowną, śpiewną melodię/And if that were not enough, Lithuanian has a wonderful, musical intonation.

















Polscy ilustratorzy - czapki z glów!/Polish illustrators - chapeau bas!
21:33, marslaur
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czwartek, 17 maja 2007
Zwróćcie uwagę na inny przebieg drogi i w ogóle na jej cudowną wiejskość i drożynowość. Wielkie drzewo po lewej to dziuplasta lipa, której już nie ma - komuś wadziła i została podpalona. Jesion wydaje się sporo chudszy niż dzisiaj - czy to możliwe, że zyskał aż tyle w ciągu 25 lat?/Pay attention that the road turns differently today, and take note of its wonderful rural and modest quality. The big tree on the left is a hollow linden that is no more - someone thought it a nuisance and set it on fire. The ash tree seems much thinner than today - is it possible it gained so much in just 25 years?




19:58, marslaur
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niedziela, 13 maja 2007
Podczas gdy moja przystojna żona patrzy/As my handsome wife watches...




Ja pomagam w urodzinach byczka/I am assisting in a calf's birth:





Wszystkiemu przyglądają się dziewczyny.../Watching the scene are the girls...



...oraz Kesia, nasza nowa domowniczka/...and Kesia, our new household member:


06:40, marslaur
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piątek, 11 maja 2007
Spójrzcie tylko na optymizm, pewność siebie, radość życia i poczucie beztroski bijące z tego zdjęcia. Świat był poukładany, przyszłość bezpieczna i jasna. Nie wiem, czy to zdjęcie zostało zrobione w "złotych" latach 70-tych (być może we wczesnych 80-tych), ale na takie wygląda/Just look at the optimism, self-confidence, joy of life, and sense of carelessness that this picture oozes. The world was well-organised, the future safe and bright. I don't know whether it was taken in the 'golden' 70s (perhaps in the early 80s), but it looks as if it was.




Dwadzieścia kilka lat później/Twenty-odd years later:



To 500 metrów od nas, dawne gospodarstwo Witolda i Anny Dabulisów. Pozuje Waldemar Mełeżyk, który mieszka kolejne 500 m dalej/The place is 500 m from us, the former farm of Witold and Anna Dabulis. Posing: Waldemar Mełeżyk from a farm a further 500 m down the road.

Pan Witold w środku, pani Anna druga z prawej, po lewej ich córki Grażyna i Biruta, pierwszy z prawej niedoszły zięć/Mr Dabulis in the centre, Ms Dabulis second from right, their daughters Grażyna and Biruta on the left, a would-be son-in-law on the right.


21:20, marslaur
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Wykopalisko z okresu budowy/A find from the construction period:



Jak dowiedziałem się od miłych kolegów z www.browar.biz, jest to fragment butelki browaru Horacy Heller. Oto jak wyglądał oryginał/As I found out from the nice guys at www.browar.biz, it is a fragment of a bottle sold by the Horacy Heller brewery. Here is how the original looked like:

Obrazek

Wedle Księgi Adresowej Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z roku 1929, w Grodnie były dwa browary: J. Margolisa na Browarnej 2 i L. Słuckiego na Wileńskiej 22. Ten ostatni - wedle kolegów z www.browar.biz - stał się później własnością spółki Horacy Heller. Zapewne więc butelka pochodzi nie wcześniej niż z roku 1930/According to the Address Book of Poland from 1929, there were two breweries in Grodno: J. Margolis's at 2 Browarna St. and L. Słucki's at 22 Wileńska St. The latter was later acquired by Horacy Heller Inc. The fragment, therefore, dates back to 1930 or later.

I jeszcze jeden fragmencik/And one more piece:



Czy ktoś wie, co to? Ideas, anyone?
08:40, marslaur
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wtorek, 08 maja 2007
Mając świadomość, że mapa ta ze względu na par excellance polityczny cel swojego wydania może nie być obiektywna, postanowiłem mimo wszystko ją tu zreprodukować, ponieważ przynosi wiele ciekawych informacji zebranych w jednym miejscu/Being aware that the map, due to the strictly political purpose of its publication, may not be objective, I still decided to reproduce it here because it contains a lot of interesting information gathered in a single place.

M. Świechowski, Mapa narodowościowa i polityczna obszarów b. W. Ks. Litewskiego łącznie z tablicą statystyczną, Wydawnictwo Tymczasowego Komitetu Politycznego Ziemi Kowieńskiej, 1921/M. Świechowski, Ethnic and Political Map of the Territories of the Former Grand Duchy of Lithuania including a Statistical Chart, Temporary Political Committee [of Poles] of the Kowno Region, 1921.



I jeszcze przybliżenie interesującego nas terenu/A closeup of the area that interests us the most:


21:50, marslaur
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poniedziałek, 07 maja 2007
Kilka migawek z niedzielnej przejażdżki nad jezioro Akmieniai (Okmiany)/A handful of images from Sunday's bike ride to Lake Akmieniai.

Położone przy samym przejściu granicznym jezioro jest dość puste i ładne. Analiza mapy lotniczej pokazuje, że da się je objechać dookoła, choć nam nie starczyło sił, a i pogoda się psuła.../Located right near the border crossing, the lake is quite empty and pretty. An analysis of the aerial map shows it is possible to make a full circle around it, but we just didn't have the energy, and the weather was deteriorating anyway...




















08:39, marslaur
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niedziela, 06 maja 2007
Z Bulakavas jedziemy 4 km na północ do Astrioji Kirsna (Kirsna Ostrów), największego zespołu pałacowego Dzukiji czyli południowo- zachodniej Litwy/From Bulakavas we ride 4 km north to Astrioji Kirsna, the largest palace complex of Dzukija, or south-western Lithuania.

Wieś leży nad rzeką Kirsna, która wedle przekazów miała stanowić granicę pomiędzy plemionami litewskimi i jaćwieskimi. Podobno był tu zamek legendarnego księcia Algimantasa, opisany w powieści Vincasa Pietarisa (1850-1902)/The village lies on the river Kirsna, which reportedly was the border between Lithuanian and Jatvingian tribes. The legendary prince Algimantas allegedly had a castle here, as described in the novel by Vincas Pietaris (1850-1902) [Mieczysław Jackiewicz, Wędrówki po Litwie, Warszawa 2004].

Majątek, wzmiankowany w XVI w., należał kolejno do Massalskich, Sapiehów i Łukaszewiczów, w I poł. XIX w. przeszedł na Karęgów, a od poł. XIX w. do pocz. XX w. posiadali go Gawrońscy. Wtedy istniała tu gorzelnia, browar, tartak, cegielnia i młyny. Od 1910 właścicielami Kirsny byli Kryńscy, a od 1912 Balińscy./The estate, mentioned in the 16th century, was owned in turn by the Massalski, Sapieha and Lukasevicius families, in early 19th century went to the Karęgas, and from mid-19th to early 20th centuries was owned by the Gawroński family. From 1910 Kirsna was owned by the Kryńskis, and from 1912 by the Balińskis [Jackiewicz, Wędrówki...]

Jak pisze R. Aftanazy (Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczypospolitej, t. 3), Włodzimierz Gawroński (ur. 1849) był synem Zygmunta i księżnej Natalii Ogińskiej, i według tradycji rodzinnej dobra miały przejść na Gawrońskich właśnie od Ogińskich/Roman Aftanazy writes (History of Residences in Poland's Former Eastern Territories, vol. 3), Włodzimierz Gawroński (b. 1849) was the son of Zygmunt and Princess Natalia Ogińska, and, according to famikly history, the Gawrońskis inherited the estate precisely from the Ogińskis.

Klasycystyczny murowany pałac wzniesiony został zapewne pod koniec XVIII lub w początkach XIX w. Założony na planie prostokąta, trzynastoosiowy, piętrowy, od strony podjazdu miał płytki portyk o czterech jońskich kolumnach wspierających gładki trójkątny fronton. Dolna kondygnacja budynku pozbawiona była jakichkolwiek dekoracji. Górna natomiast, oddzielona od parteru skromnym gzymsem, służąca zapewne dawniej celom reprezentacyjnym, posiadała obramienia okien, na które składały się trójkątne naczółki wsparte na konsolkach wieńczące otwory okienne, oraz prostokątne płyciny umieszczone pod parapetami. Wszystkie okna kształtu prostokątnego miały te same wymiary. Wyjątek stanowiły okna górnej kondygnacji ryzalitu, sięgające do posadzek. Pałac nakrywał gładki dach czterospadowy, nad portykiem dwuspadowy/The classical brick palace was most likely built in the late 18th or early 19th century. Founded on a rectangular plane, with thirteen vertical axes, from the forecourt with a shallow portico on four Ionic columns supporting a smooth triangular frontage. The first storey lacked any decorations. The upper one, separated from the ground floor by a modest cornice, had window framings, consisting of triangular jerkin heads supported by small consoles topping the windows, and rectangular panels under the window sills. All rectangular windows were of the same dimensions. The exception were the French windows of the upper-storey wall break. The palace was covered by a smooth hipped roof, with a gable roof over the portico [R. Aftanazy, Dzieje rezydencji, t. 3, s. 61].








Spichlerz/Granary:














Tył browaru/Brewery, back wall:








W Kirsnie hodowane są piękne, niezwykle wysokie i smukłe, konie rasy Holsztyn i Traken/Beautiful, exceptionally tall and slender, Holsten and Traken horses are bred in Kirsna.








Z Kirsny kierujemy się ok. 3 km na zachód do wsi Budvietis, gdzie znajdujemy resztki zespołu dworskiego pochodzącego z roku 1744. Po dworze zostały już tylko fundamenty/From Kirsna we drive some 3 km west to the village of Budvietis, where we find the remnants of a manor complex dating back to 1744. Of the manor house itself, only the foundations are left.

Spichlerz podcieniowy z roku 1803/A wooden arcade granary, built 1803:










Kaplica-mauzoleum rodziny Sperskich z pocz. XX w./Memorial chapel of the Sperski family, early 20th century:


I strażnik/And the guardian:

07:58, marslaur
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sobota, 05 maja 2007
Rudamina, cmentarz/Rudamina, the cemetery:



















Rudamina, dwór Turczynowiczów z końca XVIII wieku/Rudamina, late 18th-century manor house of the Turcinavicius family:

















W tym momencie zjawia się Rimas, który stróżuje we dworze, i wpuszcza nas do środka/At this point, Rimas, the caretaker, shows up and lets us inside.


Wnętrza nie są specjalnie interesujące - po biurach kołchozu (ten był imienia Żdanowa) zwykle nie zostaje wiele, ale zgromadzono tutaj trochę ciekawych przedmiotów i sprzętów/The interiors are not particularly interesting - the kolkhoz administration (this kolkhoz was named after Zhdanov) rarely left anything behind - but some antique objects of interest have been gathered here:






I jeszcze park dworski/The estate's park:






Z Rudaminy jedziemy 4 km na zachód przez las do majątku Bulakavas (Bułhakowsk)/From Rudamina we drive 4 km west through the woods to the Bulakavas estate.

Dwór z 1. poł. XIX wieku, początkowo parterowy, z piętrową częścią środkową z portykiem. Po 1960 przebudowany (zlikwidowano portyk, nadbudowano piętro i powiększono okna), obecnie pozbawiony cech stylowych/Early 19th- century manor house, originally one-storey, with a two-storey central part with a portico. Rebuilt after 1960 (portico removed, second storey added, windows enlarged), today lacking period features:






Oficyna/Outhouse:




Budynek gospodarczy/Outbuilding:







09:20, marslaur
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